It's sort of personal, but not without evidence. Tolkien is often accused of crypto-fascism, but actually he was a medievalist, a pastoralist, and a believer in the hereditary principle.

Tolkien loathed industrialisation and capitalism. The first for its destruction of his beloved countryside, the second for its rejection of tradition and the common weal in favour of individual greed. He also felt they demeaned people as when Ted Sandyman goes to work cleaning wheels for someone elesw "where his father was the miller nad his own master".

Sauron and Saruman, with their grim, lowering strongholds full of flame, steam, smoke and metal wheels, grinding out poorly-made armour and crude, jagged knives and swords to arm masses of untrained, unwilling soldiers, are metaphors for industrialist and capitalist ideologies (not nations per se).

To an Englishman of Tolkiens' generation, breeding and education, America was the great exemplar of these evils. In Britain, there yet remained a sense, even among the urban working classes, of community, tradition, shared values. To Tolkine and his peers, it seemed that Americans had none of these things. No history, no traditions, no community, no culture. Just every man for himelf and Devil take the hindmost. Such are the Orcs, always quarreling among themselves unless interrupted by an outsider. Crude in speech, brutal in action, without nobility or honour.

Snapper-up of unconsidered trifles, walker of paths less travelled by. Advocate-in-Ordinary to His Satanic Majesty.

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